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The global database on Non-Tariff Measures


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Adapted for TRAINS data by UNCTAD



TRAINS: Non-Tariff Measures (NTMs) based on official regulations.

Chapter A on SPS measures, refers to measures affecting areas such as restrictions for substances, hygienic requirements, or other measures for preventing dissemination of diseases. It also includes all conformity assessment measures related to food safety, such as certification, testing and inspection, and quarantine.

Chapter B on technical measures, refers to measures such as labelling and other measures to protect the environment. It also includes conformity assessment that relates to technical requirements such as certification, testing and inspection.

Chapter C classifies the measures related to pre-shipment inspection and other formalities performed in the exporting country prior to shipment.

Chapter D refers to contingent measures, which are measures implemented to counteract particular adverse effects of imports in the market of the importing country, including measures aimed at unfair foreign trade practices. They include antidumping, countervailing, and safeguards measures.

Chapter E includes licensing, quotas, and other quantity control measures, group measures that have the intention of limiting the quantity traded, such as quotas. It also covers those licences and import prohibitions which are not SPS or TBT related.

Chapter F includes price control measures, which are those implemented to control or affect the prices of imported goods in order to, inter alia, support the domestic price of certain products when the import prices of these goods are lower; establish the domestic price of certain products because of price fluctuation in domestic markets, or price instability in a foreign market; or to increase or preserve tax revenue. This category also includes measures, other than tariff measures, that increase the cost of imports in a similar manner (para-tariff measures).

Chapter G concerns finance measures, referring to measures restricting the payments of imports, for example when the access and cost of foreign exchange is regulated. This chapter also includes restrictions on the terms of payment.

Chapter H concerns measures affecting competition. These measures grant exclusive or special preferences or privileges to one or more limited group of economic operators. They refer mainly to monopolistic measures, such as state trading, or sole importing agencies, or compulsory use of national services or transport.

Chapter I concerns trade-related investment measures, group measures that restrict investment by requiring local content or requesting that investment should be related to export to balance imports.

Chapter J includes distribution restrictions, referring to restrictive measures related to internal distribution of imported products.

Chapter K concerns restriction on post-sales services, for example, restrictions in the provision of accessory services.

Chapter L contains measures that relate to subsidies that affect trade.

Chapter M containing government procurement restriction measures, refers to the restrictions bidders may find when trying to sell their products to a foreign Government.

Chapter N concerns restrictions related to intellectual property measures and intellectual property rights.

Chapter O on rules of origin, groups the measures that restrict the origin of products, or their inputs.

Chapter P includes export measures, grouping the measures a country applies to its exports. It includes export taxes, export quotas or export prohibitions.

For more information on the classification please go to UNCTAD Classification of Non-Tariff Measures

UNCTAD is the focal point within the United Nations system for the integrated treatment of trade and development. UNCTAD’s Programme on NTMs aims to enhance the transparency on NTMs and to provide support to policy makers.

© UNCTAD 2015